Peru, officially the Republic of Peru is a country in western South America.
Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures spanning from the Norte Chico civilization in Caral, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America.
The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty with its capital in Lima, which included most of its South American colonies. Ideas of political autonomy later spread throughout Spanish America and Peru gained its independence, which was formally proclaimed in 1821. After the battle of Ayacucho, three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence.
Peru Geographical situation
Peru is situated towards the center of the Pacific Coast, in South America, with the following geographical coordinates:
- 0˚ 01´48´´ North, bordering with Colombia and the Department of Loreto, located in the upper part of the first stretch of the Putumayo River, North-east of Gueppi
- 18˚ 20´ 50.8´´ South, bordering with Chile and the Department of Tacna, located at the Punto de Pascana del Hueso, on the Pacific Coast.
- 68˚ 39´ 27´´ East, bordering with Bolivia and the Department of Madre de Dios, located at the confluence of the Madre de Dios and Heath rivers.
- 81˚ 19´ 34.50´´ West, bordering with the Pacific Ocean and Piura, at the Punta de Balcones, South of the Port of Talara (R.C.S.).
Time: Peruvian time is located 5 hours after GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) and is similar to the EST (Eastern Standard Time), on the East Coast of the United States.
Referential times: When in Peru it is 12:00 noon, in Santiago (Chile) and Caracas (Venezuela), it is 1:00 p.m., in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and Buenos Aires (Argentina), it is 2:00 p.m., in New York (U.S.), 12:00 noon and in Tokyo (Japan), 2:00 a.m. on the following day.
With 1,285,216 km², it is South América’s third largest country, after Brazil and Argentina, and is located among the planet’s 20 largest countries. In addition, it possesses 200 nautical miles of ocean and territorial rights over 60 million hectares in the Antarctic.
Due respect to its geography, Peru is divided in three natural regions: The coast, Mountains and Jungle; each one of which, with its own ecosystems.
- To the North, with Ecuador
- To the South, with Chile and Bolivia
- To the East, with Colombia and Brazil
- To the West, with the Pacific Ocean.
General Population : 27´412,157 (2007 INEI Population and Residence Census)
Urban Population : 20´810,288 75.92 %
Rural Population : 6´601,869 24.08 %
In Peru, the official languages are Spanish, Quechua and Aymara. However, other dialects are spoken as well, which are circumscribed to native territories, and are generally spoken by the Peruvian Amazon’s ethnic groups.
Therefore, Peru is a multicultural, multi-ethnic and multi-lingual country.
Lima is Peru’s capital city. It is occupying the central area of the coast, facing the Pacific Ocean, as well as of the mountains, towards the East.
The city is situated at an average altitude of 133 m.a.s.l., with a population of 8,275,823 inhabitants and it is one of South América’s largest and most populated cities.